Forging encompasses a multitude of different processes. At the heart of these processes is hot forging, during which the metal is worked at a high temperature (max. 1.300 °C). Key technologies include closed-die forging, hot extrusion, upsetting, open-die forging and ring rolling. Another important field of activity for the industry is cold forging, during which the metal is worked in the cold state (max. 500 °C).